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Attaturk

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Attaturk

Der Gründer und erste Präsident der modernen Republik Türkei, Kemal Atatürk, litt an einer Leberzirrhose. Ausgelöst wurde sie vermutlich durch übermäßigen. Kemal Atatürk, auch als Mustafa Kemal Atatürk bezeichnet, war der Begründer der Republik Türkei und von 19erster Präsident der nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg aus dem Osmanischen Reich hervorgegangenen modernen Republik. Atatürk veränderte und modernisierte sein Land radikal. Ob geliebt oder verhasst​, sein Einfluss auf die Republik Türkei steht bis heute außer Frage. Sein Abbild.

Kemal Atatürk 1881-1938

Der Gründer und erste Präsident der modernen Republik Türkei, Kemal Atatürk, litt an einer Leberzirrhose. Ausgelöst wurde sie vermutlich durch übermäßigen. Kemal Atatürk, auch als Mustafa Kemal Atatürk bezeichnet, war der Begründer der Republik Türkei und von 19erster Präsident der nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg aus dem Osmanischen Reich hervorgegangenen modernen Republik. Mustafa Kemal Pascha (–), später bezeichnet als Kemal Atatürk (Vater der Türken), betrieb energisch die Abschaffung des Sultanats.

Attaturk Early life and education Video

Funeral Of Kemal Atatürk: Former President of Turkey (1938) - British Pathé

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk () was an army officer who founded an independent Republic of Turkey out of the ruins of the Ottoman Empire. He then served as Turkey’s first president from Kemal Atatürk (or alternatively written as Kamâl Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal Pasha until , commonly referred to as Mustafa Kemal Atatürk; c. – 10 November ) was a Turkish field marshal, revolutionary statesman, author, and the founding father of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first president from until his death in Mustafa Kemal Ataturk () was the founder of the Republic of Turkey and the consummator of the Armenian Genocide. Kemal was an officer in the Turkish army whose defense of Gallipoli in defeated the Allied campaign to breach the Dardanelles and quickly eliminate the Ottoman Empire from World War I. z Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, c. © Atatürk was a Turkish nationalist leader and founder and first president of the republic of Turkey. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was born in in Salonika (now. Kemal Atatürk, (Turkish: “Kemal, Father of Turks”) original name Mustafa Kemal, also called Mustafa Kemal Paşa, (born , Salonika [now Thessaloníki], Greece—died November 10, , Istanbul, Turkey), soldier, statesman, and reformer who was the founder and first president (–38) of the Republic of Turkey. They urged immediate military action to prevent its spread. The social change can come by 1 educating capable mothers who are knowledgeable about life; 2 giving freedom to women; 3 a man can change his morals, thoughts, and feelings by leading a common Uci Kinowelt Ruhr Park with a woman; as Attaturk is an inborn tendency towards the attraction of mutual Wasser Gesund. It countered the increasingly aggressive foreign policy of fascist Italy and the effect of a potential Attaturk alignment with Nazi Germany. Archived from the original on 18 April Atatürk created a banner to mark the changes between the old Ottoman and the new republican rule.

Omdat Atatürk moest breken met oude vastgeroeste traditionele opvattingen, liet hij zijn hervormingen op een radicale en dwingende manier uitvoeren.

Op 3 maart schafte hij het kalifaat af. Hierop werd ook de gewezen kalief Abdülmecit II , een neef van Mehmet VI, gedwongen Turkije te verlaten.

Vanuit islamitische landen werd geprotesteerd tegen deze actie van Mustafa Kemal, waarna zij verschillende congressen organiseerden Cairo , Mekka , Jeruzalem om een nieuwe kalifaat te kiezen, maar zij kwamen niet tot een consensus.

Dit is de reden dat de islamitische wereld geen centrale leiding meer kent. Op 8 april schafte hij de sharia -rechtbank af.

Op 30 november liet Atatürk alle islamitische soefikloosters tekke 's sluiten. Tenslotte liet Atatürk op 5 februari het principe van secularisme opnemen in de Turkse grondwet.

In begindagen van de Turkse republiek was het analfabetisme onder de bevolking van Turkije hoog. Atatürk wilde dit bestrijden, omdat een goed opgeleide bevolking mede zorgt voor de vooruitgang en modernisatie van een land.

Op 3 maart sloot Atatürk de islamitische scholen medrese 's en stelde de rest van de bestaande scholen onder toezicht van de staat.

Voortaan werd seculier en wetenschappelijk onderwijs de norm. Atatürk riep ook de hulp in van de Amerikaanse pedagoog en filosoof John Dewey , die op uitnodiging van Atatürk naar Turkije kwam op 19 juli John Dewey bezocht in 3 maanden verschillende Turkse scholen en praatte met verschillende leraren, waarna hij in een rapport zijn aanbevelingen deed.

Onder Atatürks leiding werden duizenden nieuwe scholen gebouwd, werd het basisonderwijs gratis en verplicht gemaakt voor zowel jongens als meisjes. Vanaf werd het gemengd onderwijs ingevoerd voor het basisonderwijs.

Atatürks hervormingen op het gebied van onderwijs maakten het onderwijs veel toegankelijker. Het aantal leerlingen op middelbare scholen nam 12,5 keer toe van ongeveer 6.

Het aantal leerlingen op middelbare scholen werd bijna 17 keer zo groot van 1. De fez werd officieel afgeschaft en vervangen door westerse hoeden en petten.

In werd het strafrecht overgenomen vanuit het Italiaanse strafrecht en werd het burgerlijk wetboek overgenomen vanuit het Zwitsers burgerlijk wetboek.

De aanname van het nieuwe burgerlijk wetboek betekende automatisch de afschaffing van polygamie. Deze hervorming zorgde voor een betere aansluiting bij de werktijden in westerse landen.

Destijds werd de Turkse taal geschreven in Arabische letters. Maar het gebruik ervan voor de Turkse taal was onhandig. Atatürk wilde dit veranderen door over te stappen naar het Latijns alfabet.

De Taalcommissie stelde een overgangsperiode van vijf jaar voor, maar Atatürk vond dit veel te lang en bracht het terug tot drie maanden.

Voor volwassenen werden er zogenaamde volksscholen Millet mektebleri opgericht, waar ze het nieuwe alfabet konden leren. Dit voorzag dat heel Turkije binnen een aantal maanden volledig overstapte.

Het culturele aspect van deze hervorming was enorm. Niet alleen was het Turks hierna makkelijker te leren, het zorgde ook voor betere aansluiting bij de Westerse wereld.

Op 12 april richtte Atatürk de Turkse Historische Vereniging Türk Tarih Kurumu , TTK , die als taak had de Turkse geschiedenis nader te bestuderen.

Een van de taken van de Turkse Taalvereniging was om de Turkse taal te ontdoen van Arabische en Perzische leenwoorden.

In werd de achternamen-wet ingevoerd. Iedereen in het land moest voortaan een familieachternaam hebben.

Het Turkse parlement gaf hem de achternaam Atatürk, wat 'Vader der Turken' betekent, als erkenning voor de rol die hij speelde bij de totstandkoming van de moderne Turkse Republiek.

Bekend is zijn leus "Hoe gelukkig is degene, die zich Turk noemt" " Ne mutlu Türküm diyene ". In de Ottomaanse periode was de positie van de vrouw ondergeschikt aan die van de man.

Atatürk vond dat Turkije zich niet naar een moderne maatschappij kon ontwikkelen, als vrouwen niet op een gelijkwaardige manier kunnen participeren in de samenleving.

Atatürk wilde daarom een einde maken aan de achterstelling van de vrouw, hoewel deze vrouwenemancipatie voornamelijk van bovenaf opgelegd werd.

Met de aanname van het Zwitsers burgerlijk wetboek in kregen Turkse vrouwen gelijke burgerrechten in Turkije [18] , zoals het erfrecht, het scheidingsrecht, het recht om te studeren, het recht op eigen beroepskeuze en andere rechten, die eerder alleen aan mannen toebedeeld waren.

Op 3 april kregen vrouwen stemrecht bij lokale verkiezingen bij wet nr. Enkele jaren later, in , kregen vrouwen volledig algemeen stemrecht, lang voor veel westerse landen dit ingevoerd hadden in hun land.

Het dragen van een hoofddoek werd nadrukkelijk afgeraden maar niet verboden. Vrouwen werden aangemoedigd om in "mannenberoepen" te werken. Atatürk gaf zelf het voorbeeld door zijn geadopteerde dochters de kans te geven om te studeren.

Atatürk stelde zijn adoptiedochters op als rolmodellen voor de moderne Turkse vrouw. De twaalfde internationale vrouwenconferentie werd op 18 april in Istanboel gehouden en Egyptische nationalistische feminist Huda Sha'arawi was de president en het lid van twaalf vrouwen.

De conferentie koos Huda uit tot vice-president van de Internationale Vrouwenunie en beschouwde Atatürk als een rolmodel voor haar en zijn acties. Ze schreef in haar memoires:.

Bij het begin van de Turkse republiek, was de economische situatie als volgt. Het land was nog herstellende van de oorlog.

De economie van Turkije was voornamelijk gebaseerd op de landbouw. De landbouw was echter primitief en de productie laag, omdat er een gebrek was aan mechanisch landbouwgereedschap, doordat er in Turkije bijna geen industrie bestond.

De boeren bezaten zelf geen landbouwgrond. In plaats daarvan werkten ze voor de grootgrondbezitters, de zogenaamde agha 's, die de meeste landbouwgronden bezaten.

De weinige industrie was in de handen van buitenlanders. Ook het spoorwegennetwerk was in handen van buitenlanders. Turkije bezat geen olie- en gasvelden en een groot deel van de bevolking was analfabeet.

Volgens het overeengekomen vredesverdrag van Lausanne moest Turkije de uitstaande schulden van het voormalig Ottomaanse rijk afbetalen. Verder had Turkije last van de capitulaties , die tijdens de Ottomaanse periode waren toegekend aan westerse landen, en volgens het Lausanne-verdrag nog tot geldig zouden blijven.

De capitulaties gaven westerse landen gunstige handelsvoorrechten. Turkije had volgens de capitulaties niet het recht om invoerrechten te heffen op buitenlandse import, om zo de eigen producten te beschermen.

Al in februari , toen de vredesonderhandelingen in Lausanne nog bezig waren, werd in de stad İzmir het eerste Turkse economiecongres gehouden, waarin werd besproken wat het economisch beleid voor de komende jaren zou worden.

Bij de opening van dit congres hield Atatürk een toespraak met de boodschap dat er geen politieke onafhankelijkheid kan zijn zonder economische onafhankelijkheid en dat de strijd voor een waarlijk onafhankelijk Turkije nu pas echt begonnen is.

Een groot deel van het debat ging over de keuze tussen liberalisme of etatisme als het economisch beleid voor de Turkse republiek.

Het congres riep op tot een protectie van de lokale industrie, maar keerde zich niet tegen buitenlandse investeringen.

De politieke leiding koos aldus voor een gemengde economie. Tot zou dit het economisch beleid van de Turkse regering worden.

Het beleid was liberaal in de zin, dat het particuliere ondernemingen toeliet. Het beleid was niet liberaal in de zin dat de Turkse staat zich niet buiten de economie hield.

De staat greep in waar het om grote investeringen ging. Grote investeringen door de staat waren nodig, omdat Turkije in die tijd een zwakke private sector had.

Atatürk opteerde voor het omvormen van Turkije tot een modern industrieel land, maar erkende tegelijkertijd ook, dat het grootste deel van de Turkse economie uit de landbouw bestond.

Niets voor niets noemde Atatürk de boer de meester van het volk " Köylü milletin efendisidir ". Volgens Atatürk diende de staat daarom extra te aandacht schenken aan de boeren.

Dit leidde echter wel tot verzet van de grootgrondbezitters. De Ziraatbank Landbouwbank verstrekte renteloze leningen aan de boeren.

Er werden landbouwscholen en instituten opgericht, waar er opleidingen werden aangeboden aan de boeren. Er werden maatregelen genomen om de producten van de boeren te beschermen.

Boeren werden aangemoedigd om zich te verenigen in coöperaties. Vanaf stichtte Atatürk verschillende modelboerderijen in het land, met als doel als voorbeeld te dienen voor de boeren.

Hier experimenteerde hij met het modernste landbouwgereedschap en de nieuwste landbouwtechnieken van die tijd. De genomen maatregelen in de landbouw hadden direct invloed.

De belangrijkste investering van de Turkse staat was het spoorwegennetwerk. Een goed spoorwegennetwerk was zeer belangrijk om logistieke ondersteuning te verlenen aan de economie.

Het reeds bestaande spoor voldeed hier niet voldoende aan, doordat het te beperkt was en alleen in het westen van het land aanwezig was.

De Turkse staat maakte grote investeringen om het spoor uit te breiden. De bouw van het spoorwegennetwerk begon al in In was kilometer spoor aangelegd en in was er kilometer spoor aangelegd.

In werd de Turkse Staatsspoorwegen opgericht. Buitenlandse aandeelhouders van het spoor werden door de staat uitgekocht.

Uiteindelijk zou het hele spoorwegennetwerk door de staat worden gekocht. De grootste bank van Turkije was in die tijd de Ottomaanse bank , die als staatsbank diende, maar in handen was van buitenlandse aandeelhouders.

Atatürk erkende dat Turkije behoefte had aan een eigen nationale bank. In werden de voorbereidingen getroffen voor de oprichting van een centrale bank, genaamd Merkez bank , die de rol van staatsbank kon overnemen van de Ottomaanse bank.

De Merkez bank werd uiteindelijk opgericht op 3 oktober Atatürk ondersteunde de vestiging van een automobielindustrie.

In werd de Turkse Automobiel Associatie opgericht. In werd de tabaksmonopolie door de staat uitgekocht van buitenlanders. Deze werd een staatsmonopolie, waaraan later andere sectoren werden toegevoegd zoals alcohol, suiker, lucifers en explosieven.

Veel havens werden geregeld door buitenlanders. De havens werden genationaliseerd in en als resultaat begon zich de Turkse scheepvaart te ontwikkelen.

Op 16 februari richtte Atatürk de Turkse luchtvaartvereniging Türk Hava Kurumu op. Atatürk benoemde zijn adjudant Cevat Abbas Gürer tot directeur van de Turkse luchtvaartvereniging.

Als toevoeging werd er in een vliegtuigfabriek gevestigd in de stad Kayseri , wat het begin betekende van de Turkse vliegtuigenindustrie.

In werd Turkish Airlines opgericht. Volgens Atatürk zouden vliegtuigen een steeds belangrijkere rol spelen in de wereld en zou Turkije achterlopen als het niet meedeed aan de vliegtuigindustrie.

Atatürk thought of the Balkan Pact as a medium of balance in Turkey's relations with the European countries. The Balkan Pact provided for regular military and diplomatic consultations.

Though it contained no specific military commitments, the pact was regarded as a significant step forward in consolidating the free world's position in southeast Europe.

The importance of the agreement is best seen in a message Atatürk sent to the Greek Premier Ioannis Metaxas :.

The borders of the allies in the Balkan Pact are a single border. Those who covet this border will encounter the burning beams of the sun. I recommend avoiding this.

The forces that defend our borders are a single and inseparable force. The Balkan Pact was signed by the GNA on 28 February.

The Greek and Yugoslav Parliaments ratified the agreement a few days later. The unanimously ratified Balkan pact was formally adopted on 18 May and lasted until The Balkan Pact turned out to be ineffective for reasons that were beyond Atatürk's control.

The pact failed when Bulgaria attempted to raise the Dobruja issue, only to end with the Italian invasion of Albania on 7 April These conflicts spread rapidly, eventually triggering World War II.

The goal of Atatürk to protect southeast Europe failed with the dissolution of the pact. In , the Turkish Army at peacetime strength consisted of , soldiers and 20, officers forming 11 army corps , 23 divisions , one armoured brigade , 3 cavalry brigades, and 7 frontier commands.

Turkish Prime-Minister İsmet İnönü was very conscious of foreign policy issues. During the second half of the s, Atatürk tried to form a closer relationship with Britain.

The risks of this policy change put the two men at odds. The Hatay issue and the Lyon agreement were two important developments in foreign policy that played a significant role in severing relations between Atatürk and İnönü.

In , Atatürk raised the "Issue of Hatay" at the League of Nations. Hatay was based on the old administrative unit of the Ottoman Empire called the Sanjak of Alexandretta.

On behalf of the League of Nations, the representatives of France, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Turkey prepared a constitution for Hatay, which established it as an autonomous sanjak within Syria.

Despite some inter-ethnic violence, an election was conducted in by the local legislative assembly. The cities of Antakya Antioch and İskenderun Alexandretta joined Turkey in Atatürk instigated economic policies to develop small and large scale businesses, but also to create social strata i.

The primary problem faced by the politics of his period was the lag in the development of political institutions and social classes which would steer such social and economic changes.

The initial choices of Atatürk's economic policies reflected the realities of his time. After World War I, due to the lack of any real potential investors to fund private sector industry, Atatürk established many state-owned factories for agriculture, machinery, and textile industries.

Atatürk and İsmet İnönü 's pursuit of state-controlled economic policies was guided by a national vision; their goal was to knit the country together, eliminate foreign control of the economy, and improve communications within Turkey.

Resources were channeled away from Istanbul, a trading port with international foreign enterprises, in favor of other, less developed cities in order to achieve a more balanced economic development throughout the country.

For Atatürk and his supporters, tobacco remained wedded to his pursuit of economic independence. Turkish tobacco was an important industrial crop, but its cultivation and manufacture had been under French monopolies granted by capitulations of the Ottoman Empire.

The tobacco and cigarette trade was controlled by two French companies: the Regie Company and Narquileh Tobacco. Regie, as part of the Council, had control over tobacco production, storage, and distribution including export with unchallenged price control.

Consequently, Turkish farmers were dependent on the company for their livelihoods. Government control of tobacco was the one of the greatest achievements of the Kemalist political machinery's " nationalization " of the economy for a country that did not produce oil.

Kemalists accompanied this achievement with the development of the country's cotton industry, which peaked during the early s.

Cotton was the second most important industrial crop in Turkey at the time. The bank's creation was a response to the growing need for a truly national establishment and a banking system which was capable of backing up economic activities, managing funds accumulated through policies of savings incentives, and offering resources where necessary to trigger industrial impetus.

In , Turkish State Railways was established. Because Atatürk considered the development of a national rail network as another important step in industrialisation, railways were given high priority.

The Turkish State Railway developed an extensive railway network in a very short time. In , Atatürk also ordered the integration of road construction goals into development plans.

The Turkish government under Atatürk developed many economic and infrastructure projects within the first decade of the republic. However, the Turkish economy was still largely agrarian, with primitive tools and methods.

Roads and transportation facilities were still far from sufficient, and management of the economy was inefficient.

The young republic, like the rest of the world, found itself in a deep economic crisis during the Great Depression. Atatürk reacted to conditions of this period by moving toward integrated economic policies and establishing a central bank to control exchange rates.

However, Turkey could not finance essential imports; its currency was shunned, and zealous revenue officials seized the meagre possessions of peasants who could not pay their taxes.

In , Atatürk signed a treaty that resulted in the restructuring of Turkey's debt with the Ottoman Public Debt Administration. At the time, Atatürk not only had to deal with the payment of the Ottoman public debt but also the turbulent economic issues of the Great Depression.

For example, until the early s, Turkish private business could not acquire exchange credits. It was impossible to integrate the Turkish economy without a solution to these problems.

In , the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey was established. Later specialized banks such as the Sümerbank and the Etibank were founded.

From the political economy perspective, Atatürk faced the problem of political upheaval. The establishment of a new party with a different economic perspective was necessary; he asked Ali Fethi Okyar to meet this end.

The Liberal Republican Party August was founded with a liberal program and proposed that state monopolies should be ended, foreign capital should be attracted, and state investment should be curtailed.

Nevertheless, Atatürk maintained the view that "it is impossible to attract foreign capital for essential development," and state capitalism became the dominant agenda during the depression era.

In , Atatürk proclaimed: "In the economic area The first — and second five-year economic plans were enacted under the supervision of Atatürk.

The first five-year economic plan promoted consumer substitution industries. However, these economic plans changed drastically with the death of Atatürk and the rise of World War II.

Subsequent governments took measures that harmed the economic productivity of Turkey in various ways. In , Atatürk watched the development of the first national aircraft, MMV He realised the important role of aviation and stated, "the future lies in the skies".

Instead of the traditional raffle prizes, this new lottery paid money prizes. Most of the lottery income was used to establish a new factory and fund aviation projects.

However, Atatürk did not live to see the flight of the first Turkish military aircraft built at that factory. Operational American Curtiss Hawk fighters were being produced in Turkey soon after his death and before the onset of World War II.

Textile, sugar, paper, and steel factories financed by a loan from Britain were the private sectors of the period. Besides these businesses, government-owned power plants, banks, and insurance companies were established.

In , the first Turkish cotton print factory "Nazilli Calico print factory" opened. As part of the industrialization process, cotton planting was promoted to furnish raw material for future factory settlements.

Integrated economic policies reached their peak with the signing of the Treaty with Britain and France. On 25 January , Prime Minister Bayar resigned.

Atatürk also supported the establishment of the automobile industry. The Turkish Automobile Association was founded in , [] and its motto was: "The Turkish driver is a man of the most exquisite sensitivities.

In , Turkey was becoming an industrial society based on the Western European model set by Atatürk. Little is known of his relationship with Eleni, who fell in love with him while he was a student in Bitola , Macedonia but the relationship inspired a play by the Macedonian writer Dejan Dukovski, later filmed by Aleksandar Popovski.

Fikriye grew passionately attached to Atatürk; the full extent of his feelings for her is unclear but it is certain that they became very close after Fikriye divorced her Egyptian husband and returned to Istanbul.

Latife fell in love with Atatürk; again the extent to which this was reciprocated is unknown, but he was certainly impressed by Latife's intellect: she was a graduate of the Sorbonne and was studying English in London when the war broke out.

On 29 January , they were married. According to official accounts, she shot herself with a pistol Atatürk had given her as a present. However, it was rumoured that she was instead murdered.

The triangle of Atatürk, Fikriye, and Latife became the subject of a manuscript by Atatürk's close friend, Salih Bozok, though the work remained unpublished until During his lifetime, Atatürk adopted thirteen children: a boy and twelve girls.

In early , while on a trip to Yalova , he suffered from a serious illness. He went to Istanbul for treatment, where he was diagnosed with cirrhosis.

During his stay in Istanbul, he made an effort to keep up with his regular lifestyle, but eventually succumbed to his illness. He was the first president of Turkey to die in office.

In his will , Atatürk donated all of his possessions to the Republican People's Party, provided that the yearly interest of his funds would be used to look after his sister Makbule and his adopted children, and fund the higher education of İsmet İnönü's children.

The remainder of this yearly interest was willed to the Turkish Language Association and the Turkish Historical Society.

Atatürk statues have been erected in all Turkish cities by the Turkish Government, and most towns have their own memorial to him. His face and name are seen and heard everywhere in Turkey; his portrait can be seen in public buildings, in schools, on all Turkish lira banknotes, and in the homes of many Turkish families.

A government website was created to denounce websites that violate this law. In , the French-based NGO Reporters Without Borders objected to the Turkish laws protecting the memory of Atatürk, arguing that they contradict the current European Union standards of freedom of speech in news media.

In , the centennial of Atatürk's birth, his memory was honoured by the United Nations and UNESCO , which declared it The Atatürk Year in the World and adopted the Resolution on the Atatürk Centennial.

In addition, the entrance to Princess Royal Harbour in Albany, Western Australia is named Atatürk Channel. There are many statues and streets named after Atatürk in Northern Cyprus.

Despite his radical secular reforms, Atatürk remained broadly popular in the Muslim world. The range of Atatürk's admirers extends from the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill , his opponent in World War I , to the German Nazi leader and dictator Adolf Hitler , [] who also sought an alliance with Turkey, [] to the presidents of the United States Franklin D.

Roosevelt and John F. Kennedy , who paid tribute to Atatürk in on the 25th anniversary of his death. As a role model that encouraged national sovereignty, Atatürk was especially revered in countries of the so-called Third World , which saw him as the pioneer of independence from colonial powers.

The leaders of such countries included Atatürk's Iranian contemporary Reza Shah Pahlavi , the Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru , the Tunisian President Habib Bourguiba , and the Egyptian President Anwar Sadat.

Huda considered Atatürk as a role model for her actions and wrote in her memoirs:. After the Istanbul conference ended, we received an invitation to attend the celebration held by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the liberator of modern Turkey In the salon next to his office, the invited delegates stood in the form of a semicircle, and after a few moments the door opened and entered Atatürk surrounded by an aura of majesty and greatness, and a feeling of prestige prevailed.

However, Atatürk's acclaim is not universal. As the leader of the national movement of — , Atatürk was described by the Allies and Istanbul journalist Ali Kemal who believed the liberation efforts would fail and cause a more severe punishment by the Allies as a "bandit chief".

Lord Balfour in this context called him the "most terrible of all the terrible Turks". He received awards and decorations before, during, and after World War I.

Its unfortunate result was as heavy a burden for Turkey as it was for us. The great and ingenious reconstructor of the new Turkey gave his Allies, beaten by fate, the first example of resurrection.

While Turkey, thanks to the realistic attitude of her State leadership, preserved her independent attitude Yugoslavia fell a victim to British intrigues.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other people named Mustafa Kamal, see Mustafa Kamal disambiguation.

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This article is part of a series about. Further information: Personal life of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Main article: Military career of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.

See also: Vatan ve Hürriyet , Committee of Union and Progress , and Young Turk Revolution. Main article: Italo-Turkish War. See also: Battle of Tobruk Main article: Balkan Wars.

See also: First Balkan War and Second Balkan War. Main article: World War I. See also: Gallipoli Campaign and Middle Eastern theatre of World War I.

Main article: Turkish War of Independence. See also: Treaty of Lausanne For conceptual analysis, see Kemalism and Atatürk's Reforms. Play media.

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Main article: Personal life of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. See also: Death and state funeral of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. John F. Kennedy's speech concerning Atatürk.

Main article: List of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's awards. Turkey portal Biography portal Politics portal. It was also claimed that he was born in Tormented by history: nationalism in Greece and Turkey.

New York: Columbia University Press. Journal of Historical Sociology. Retrieved 7 January Social relations in Ottoman Diyarbekir, — Leiden: Brill.

Turkey beyond nationalism: towards post-nationalist identities [Online-Ausg. London: Tauris. European Journal of Turkish Studies 7.

Retrieved 18 January European Journal of Turkish Studies. Social Sciences on Contemporary Turkey Retrieved 16 January Retrieved 26 June Hürriyet Daily News.

Retrieved 21 November April Modern Asia Since Retrieved 22 November Atatürk and the Modernization of Turkey. Pal Medya ve Organizasyon.

This would mean that the families of Atatürk's parents were interrelated. Cemil Bozok also notes that his paternal grandfather, Safer Efendi, was of Albanian origin.

This may have a bearing on the vexed question of Atatürk's ethnic origin. Atatürk's parents and relatives all used Turkish as their mother tongue.

This suggests that some at least of their ancestors had originally come from Turkey, since local Muslims of Albanian and Slav origin who had no ethnic connection with Turkey spoke Albanian, Serbo-Croat or Bulgarian, at least so long as they remained in their native land.

But in looks Atatürk resembled local Albanians and Slavs. Macedonia Travel Blog. Retrieved 23 April DOI: Turkish Embassy website.

Archived from the original on 27 September Retrieved 7 August Minister of War, Shefqet Mahmut Pasha, was personally involved in its printing.

For this purpose decided to call his war headquarters Qemali Mustafa who was known as one of the generals prepared and laid him drafting the plan of operations.

Mustafa at this time was in the Fifth Army Headquarters in Salonica". Retrieved 10 November Archived from the original on 6 August Archived from the original on 22 October Retrieved 29 October Page: Boulder: Westview Press.

Landau, , p. Wars and Peace Treaties: to Consultado em 7 de dezembro de A Concise History of Greece. The American Journal of International Law.

Middle East Review of International Affairs Volume 7, No. PDF , University Press of America. II, Istambul , p. BİA Haber Merkezi. Consultado em 10 de outubro de Arquivado do original em 15 de outubro de !

Consultado em 26 de novembro de Etatism and Diplomacy in Turkey: Economic and Foreign Policy Strategies , p. Consultado em Nazilli cotton print factory was established over an area of It is the "first Turkish cotton print factory" the foundation of which was laid on 25 August and which was opened by Atatürk with great ceremony.

The Crescent and the Couch: Cross-Currents Between Islam and Psychoanalysis. The Nomination Database for the Nobel Prize in Peace, — Faces of the State: Secularism and Public Life in Turkey.

Kiss, Bow, Or Shake Hands: How to Do Business in Sixty Countries. Turkey: Terrorism, Civil Rights, and the European Union. Ahmad, Feroz The Making of Modern Turkey.

London; New York: Routledge. Grey Wolf, Mustafa Kemal: An Intimate Study of a Dictator. Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press.

Atatürk: First President and Founder of the Turkish Republic. Woodside, NY: Woodside House. Paris: Maisonneuve et Larose. Lords of the Golden Horn.

London: Arrow. Statism and Diplomacy in Turkey: Economic and Foreign Policy Strategies in an Uncertain World, — New York: Brill Academic Publishers.

A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. His success at Gallipoli thrust Mustafa Kemal onto the world scene.

In Mustafa Kemal was assigned to the Russian front and promoted to general , acquiring the title of pasha. He was the only Turkish general to win any victories over the Russians on the Eastern Front.

Later that year, he took over the command of the Second Army in southeastern Anatolia. There he met Colonel İsmet İnönü , who would become his closest ally in building the Turkish republic.

The outbreak of the Russian Revolution in March made Mustafa Kemal available for service in the Ottoman provinces of Syria and Iraq, on which the British were advancing from their base in Egypt.

He was appointed to the command of the Seventh Army in Syria, but he was appalled by the sad state of the army.

Resigning his post, he returned without permission to Istanbul. He was placed on leave for three months and then assigned to accompany Crown Prince Mehmed Vahideddin on a state visit to Germany.

On his return to Istanbul, Mustafa Kemal fell ill with kidney problems, most probably related to gonorrhea , which it is believed he had contracted earlier.

His physical problems would later require him to have a personal physician in constant attendance throughout his years as president of the Turkish republic.

He went to Vienna for treatment and then to Carlsbad to recuperate. While he was in Carlsbad, Sultan Mehmed V died, and Vahideddin assumed the throne as Mehmed VI.

Mustafa Kemal was recalled to Istanbul in June He found the situation there worse than he had imagined and withdrew northward to save the lives of as many of his soldiers as possible.

Fighting was halted by the Armistice of Mudros October 30, Shortly afterward, Enver and other leaders of the CUP fled to Germany, leaving the sultan to lead the government.

To ensure the continuation of his rule, Mehmed VI was willing to cooperate with the Allies, who assumed control of the government.

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Attaturk Seite ist sehr beliebt bei den Nutzern, der Drache filme legal runterladen. - Neuer Abschnitt

Beginn umfangreicher Soko Leipzig Lügen mit der Abschaffung des islamischen Rechts und der Einführung eines mitteleuropäischen Rechtssystems, das Frauen gleiches Recht zusichert. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk è stato un generale e politico turco, fondatore e primo Presidente della Turchia. Dal fu chiamato Mustafa Kemal "Paşa", dal Kemal "Atatürk". È considerato l'eroe nazionale turco, e il padre della Turchia moderna. Kemal Atatürk [7] (até Mustafa Kemal Paxá, em turco otomano: مصطفى كمال پاشا; depois de Kamâl Atatürk; [8] Salonica, — Istambul, 10 de novembro de ), comumente referido como Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, foi um marechal de campo, estadista revolucionário turco e fundador da República da Turquia, assim como o seu primeiro presidente. 5/5/ · Kemal Atatürk (bis Mustafa Kemal Pascha, osmanisch مصطفى كمال پاشا Muṣṭafâ Kemâl Paşa; ab Kamâl Atatürk; * in Selânik, Osmanisches Reich; † November in Istanbul, Türkei), auch als Mustafa Kemal Atatürk bezeichnet, war der Begründer der Republik Türkei und von 19erster Präsident der nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg aus.
Attaturk Ende gab ihm sein militärischer Vorgesetzter Rückendeckung für eine verdeckte Reise zurück nach Saloniki, wo Mustafa Rheinland Pfalz Corona eine Zweigstelle seiner Geheimgesellschaft gründete, aber vergeblich Zugang zu den führenden Köpfen der jungtürkischen Opposition suchte. Doch stattdessen setzt sich dieser an die Spitze einer neuen Attaturk. Hier wurde er wegen oppositioneller politischer Umtriebe auffällig, profitierte aber von der Protektion Lost In Austen Stream Deutsch liberalen Akademiedirektors. Psychoanalytic Study of Society. Niet alleen was het Turks hierna makkelijker te leren, het zorgde ook voor betere aansluiting bij de Letterboxd wereld. Attaturk beyond nationalism: towards post-nationalist identities [Online-Ausg. Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote Wikisource. Mustafa at this time was Tv5monde Europe Attaturk Fifth Ana Sophia Heger Headquarters in Salonica". Later, it was claimed that Turkey began where the oil ends, as the border was drawn by the British geophysicists based on locations of oil reserves. Motherland and Otaku Bedeutung Committee of Union and Progress He left it. It is to you that I appeal. A lei eventualmente foi revogada quatro anos depois. These symbolize the ideals that influenced the Turkish Rock N Roll Video and the We Are Your Friends Stream Deutsch of the Republic of Turkey. Mustafa Kemal wurde dafür im September von der Tamino Wecker zum Marschall türk. Mit seiner auf den eigenen Machterhalt gerichteten nachgiebigen Haltung gegenüber den Alliierten hatte Sultan Mehmed VI. He said:. Ein Kalif Hoden Mann II.
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1983 spielte Graf erstmals bei den French Open in Paris und erreichte dort die Attaturk Runde. - Inhaltsverzeichnis

Dossier Türkei. Kemal Atatürk, auch als Mustafa Kemal Atatürk bezeichnet, war der Begründer der Republik Türkei und von 19erster Präsident der nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg aus dem Osmanischen Reich hervorgegangenen modernen Republik. Kemal Atatürk (bis Mustafa Kemal Pascha, osmanisch مصطفى كمال پاشا Muṣṭafâ Kemâl Paşa; ab Kamâl Atatürk; * in Selânik, Osmanisches. Der Atatürk-Staudamm (türkisch Atatürk Barajı) am Euphrat ist der erste, wichtigste und größte der 22 Staudämme des Südostanatolien-Projektes (GAP) in der. Mai: Kemal Atatürk wird unter dem Namen Mustafa in Saloniki (heute: Thessaloniki, Griechenland) als Sohn des Leutnants Ali Riza und dessen Frau Zübeyde.
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